Before video games there were flight simulators which train pilots in real life situations without killing anyone this process is called virtual reality.

Project Syria — virtual reality used by journalist to communicate the war in Syria.


Existenz David Cronenberg 1999 – Between reality and virtual reality. The body guard got trapped in the game and it’s changing him. The idea of hyper reality, she’s getting very bored — giving us an alternative world, diving into another world to distract from real life.


“Disneyland is presented as imaginary i order to make us believe that the rest is real, whereas all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no longer real, but belong to the hyperreal order and to the order of simulation. It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology) but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real, and thus of saving the reality principle.” – Jean Baudrillard. He’s criticising Disneyland, emphasising that Disneyland is not trying to be anything else, not pretending to be something they’re not. Whereas the whole environment in LA is fake, they cant follow reality/real life anymore. Similarly social media is always happy and positive, not knowing if you know the person anymore, kind of concealing the truth.


According to Alan Bryman (“The Disneyisation of society”, 2004) one of the main foundations for Disneyisation is to increasing the appeal of goods, services and the settings in which they are purveyed in an increasingly homogenised environments. In Disneyland the staff go through smile training and surface acting, everyone is always in a happy mood which is not a natural feeling therefore being fake and unreal.


“Everything proceeds as if space had been trapped by time, as if there was no history other than the last 48 hours of news, as if each individual history were drawing its motive, its words and images, from the inexhaustible stock of an unending history in the present.” – Marc Auge ‘Non-Places.’ Miss any kind of history he calls non places, he’s criticising the airport — every airports look the same, you’re being guided being through the images and signs. He says supermarkets are no place we just go there and leave however we search for things and ask staff. Carparks could be described as no places.


Milton Keynes — Designated as a new town and social experiment in 1967. It’s an empty dead city with too many roundabouts also the roads in shopping mall really confusing. “A city by town planners and seemingly lived in solely by accountants and marketing executives. Forty years on, you’ll still struggle to find any “there” there: the continued absence of soul, common in planned towns. The new developments may make it more normal, but they ain’t pretty. Roundabouts and roads, roads: you’ll definitely need a car” – The Guardian, 2007



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